Why Are Printed Circuit Boards Important? Gretchen Hill

Printed circuit boards are the most vital among the components that make up an electronic device. Heading into the Space Age would not be possible without this piece of hardware. The development of this piece was to ensure the efficiency of the electronic device and to make sure that all components that need to work together will function properly.

PCBPrinted circuit boards are the parts that allow the components of an electronic device to communicate with each other through a tight electric circuit but keep the circuits compact at the same time. It was thought that the idea for the circuit board was already present during the 1850’s but after World War II, during the 1940’s, that it was produced commercially.

Printed circuit boards would be composed of a few layers.

These layers, similar to how layer cakes would look like, work together to make the circuits connecting each area, ensuring that the electronic device works properly.

The first part of the circuit board that will be the board it self, since it is the part that holds everything together. It is also called the substrate. It can be made of a semi conductive material, or of a fully insulated material. The material that is commonly used is fibre glass, which is known to be a very rigid material, but is also flexible. Fibre glass is also known as “FR4” during the production of circuit boards.

The next part of a circuit board will be the actual conductive area of it, which makes up the circuit that goes through the board –

Copper is commonly used for this layer. Copper is a very good conductor and is also inexpensive to use. Before copper strips can be placed onto the fibre glass board, the design for the circuit is first produced. Once the design is set and transferred onto the board, the copper is then “printed,” or etched into the board.

Holes for the electronic components of the circuit will be drilled into the board afterwards. Depending on the thickness of the copper, this also dictates the how electricity will flow through the circuit board. Some circuit boards will have a double-sided layer or they can be a multilayer circuit. The layers can be go from 2 layers to as much as 16 layers, even more.

Printed circuit boards will be green in color in most cases, but there are times that they can be red or purple .This color is produced by the solder mask. Soldermarks are placed over the copper designs to protect and insulate the circuits. This also helps in preventing what is called solder jumping. Solder jumps happen when a component is soldered in place and excessive solder accidentally gets in contact with another component, which can ruin the circuit if left unchecked.

pcbLabeling the circuit board is also necessary so that when someone is trying to fix the board, or during the assembly, a person can tell which component goes to which area. A silkscreen layer is used to create labels on the board and the color used is typically white, which helps in getting the label to be noticed faster.

During cases that a circuit board needs to be connected to another circuit board as part of an assembly process, copper fingers can be added onto the board. These fingers are exposed copper contacts that can be found on one side of the board and is then easily inserted into an opening for it that can be found on the other circuit board.

Annular rings are copper rings that are found around the holes where electronic components are to be inserted through –

This gives a better contact between the circuit board and the electronic component that was installed. Once the hole for the component is drilled, the ring is then added afterwards. Soldering is the method used to connect the component to the annular ring. Printed circuit boards are vital with the creation of the new electronic devices now. Production has never been easier, thanks to this piece of hardware.


Printed circuit board are fundamental with the production of the new electronic gadgets now. Creation has never been simpler, on account of this bit of equipment. Using cutting edge hardware in a spotless and composed procedure we deliver quality items that you can rely on upon.

Why Are Printed Circuit Boards Important?

The Different Uses of Custom Coins Frank Smith

Challenge coins have gone a long way from their traditional use in the military. Today, creative ideas make way to fully utilize these custom coins for anyone’s advantage. These coins offer a lot of potential for anyone whether it is personal or business-related use.

For example, marketers see these as effective tools in promoting their brands while others see these as unique items to give as gift. Whatever use these coins serve, these continue to gain popularity as time goes by.

To give you an idea how these coins are used, we listed down some of their uses in both traditional and modern times.

Traditional Use

Custom CoinsThe first use of custom coins was recorded in the military. Challenge coins are usually given to prove membership and enhance the morale of the military unit. Every unit issued with these must carry their coins at all times.

The challenge begins when someone takes out a coin in a bar and slams it on the table. Everyone issued with the coins must also slam theirs down. Anyone who does not have his coin with him must pay for the next round of drinks. If everyone has their coins, then the challenger must pay the drinks.


Another use of challenge coins is for identification. In the past, a French pilot was able to avoid execution, thanks to his coin. French soldiers captured this pilot and mistook him for a German spy. They took his belongings, including his ID. However, he was saved when they saw his coin, proving that he is actually not a German spy.

In the modern times, these coins are also used as some kind of identification. Business owners often engrave their logos on these coins, which serve as an identification for their employees. They invest on these coins as these can also be effective to retain their employees.

Uphold Camaraderie

In both the old and modern times, challenge coins are used to promote camaraderie among people.

In the past, these coins serve as tools to form the bonds among military personnel. They use these coins to engage in challenges that can uphold friendship among soldiers.

Today, this purpose still serves the military. However, companies and organization also picked these up to promote camaraderie among their employees. Though the challenge now varies from organization to organization, the challenge coins remain serving their purpose.


Aside from their traditional use, challenge coins are also being used as sign of recognition. For example, these are still being used in the military as a sign of honor. The coins are also given to foreign dignitaries and civilian VIPs.

In a business setting, these coins are also used to recognize outstanding employees. Special customized coins are given to honor employees who exemplified outstanding work for a certain period of time.

Promotional Use

Modern marketers also see these custom coins as great opportunities to boost their businesses. With customizable features, these coins may serve as effective promotional tools for companies.

challenge-coinsDetails about companies may be engraved in these coins, making them powerful tools for promotional purposes. Company name, contact information and other details can be included in these coins. Companies may then use these as giveaways and gifts to loyal and future clients.


If you want to give important people something special during certain occasions, custom coins can also be your best bet.

Since these coins are customizable, you can give a personal touch to your gifts for your special ones. You may choose with the wide variety of coin customization styles to suit the person’s traits. You may opt for a 3D coin or choose offset printing to immortalize a favorite memory with that person. Different shapes and cuts are also available for a unique touch. In custom challenge coins, the possibility is endless.


Coin collecting has been an appealing hobby for people even in the distant past. Many people enjoy collecting coins from different eras and view these as a popular pastime. Learning about the backgrounds of these coins has become an entertaining leisure for some.

Today, coin collecting is still popular among individuals. They see these coins as forms of art. With a wide choice for customization, the hunt for new challenge coins has become more exciting hobby than ever.

Bottle Opener

With the modern technology, challenge coins are not just your mere coins anymore. Today, creative individuals have made them more useful than ever. They can be your bottle openers, too.

With highly customized and exquisitely detailed bottle openers, these coins make great gifts to anyone, especially your drinking buddies.


Aside from being a bottle opener, challenge coins are also becoming popular as keychains. The fine details of these keychain-slash-coins can be trendy and cool, making these ideal to display on your bags, wallets or smartphones.

Several companies also use these keychain coins to promote their brands. These make good event freebies, promo offers or unique giveaways.

Challenge coins have evolved throughout time, and these will remain evolving with the help of creative minds and colorful imagination.

If you want to catch up on this latest trend, we at ChallengeCoin4Less are more than willing to provide you with your custom coins needs.

The Different Uses of Custom Coins

3 Tips You Need To Know Before Building A Shipping Container With Moveablecontainer.Com Crystal Powers

The reuse or recycling of a shipping container to be used as the main body of a home has become a popular trend during the past few years. Because of their expedient size, shipping containers have become preferred materials for use in the construction of a house. Shipping containers are appealing due to their simplicity: every room in your house can be delivered in one piece, and you can put them on top of each or side-by-side to create multiple rooms or connect them together to make a larger room.

However, most things are never simple. Constructing a shipping container home is riddled with challenges. Why? Well for one, the concept is still fairly new, so there aren’t that many people out there who know how to build one successfully. If you are looking for the right group of people who can pull it off without any problems, go to moveablecontainer.com. Here at moveablecontainer.com, we offer a wide range of customization options for your shipping container. If you don’t have a shipping container that you want us to recycle and modify, then we can construct one for you at a low, low price.

Visually Inspect the Container that you are Getting

Storage containersOne of the things that you have to do when buying shipping container is to always make sure that you get the chance to actually see the container that you are buying. Never ever buy a container based on a photographed image. Also, do not take the company’s word that they will be in good shape. That’s why here at moveablecontainer.com, we always encourage our customers to come down over to our depot locations so that they themselves can inspect the ones that they will be getting.

Know your Local Rules

Every country has a different set of rules. Every state here in the United States has a different set of building code. Shipping container homes are not exempt from local government scrutiny. Make sure that your shipping container home adheres to the rules and regulations set by your local authority to avoid hiccups and problems. If you don’t, you may incur huge fines. In some states, they may even ask you to redo the construction of your house, just to adhere to a specific building regulation.

Find a Trustworthy Contractor who can Do It All

One of the most common mistakes every homeowner makes when constructing their home for the first time is having different contractors for every aspect of the home. They get one contractor for modifying the shipping containers, they get another one for doing the interior design, they hire another one for plumbing, and so forth.

Movable ContainerAside from being more expensive, this technique also causes problems when certain aspects of their work overlap. The best approach to take when constructing a new shipping container home is to find a contractor who will do it all. This eliminates the communication and coordination problems between contractors since everything will be done by a single entity. In addition, getting a single contractor who will do it all will save you money. You don’t have to pay 10 different contractors who have varying rates. You can just pay a single contractor a flat rate to do everything.

Understand the Build Material and Quality of your Shipping Containers

It is easy to inspect visually the containers that you will be using for your home. However, understanding what your shipping container is made of and knowing its build quality is a totally different ball game. It is important to know what kind of metal your shipping containers are made of. Knowing what they are made of allows you to know what it can and cannot withstand.

You also have to know their specifications, specifically their external size, gross weight, Tare, Maximum Capacity, Internal Capacity, Internal size, and Door opening size. This is necessary, if you want to know what can and cannot go into your shipping container. Here at moveablecontainer.com, we provide you with all the information you need to know before making your purchase.

From our website, you can see the specifications for the four types of shipping container sizes that we offer. In addition, we also indicate the types of modifications we can do with your shipping container. If you want to get a shipping container quote from us, we have a quotes request section that you can fill up and send us, so that we can give you a callback and provide you your quote.

Author Bio:
Here at moveablecontainer.com, we offer a wide range of customization options for your shipping container. It is specially designed for residential purposes and for commercial purposes as well.
3 Tips You Need To Know Before Building A Shipping Container With Moveablecontainer.Com

The Most Expensive Golf Equipment In The world Anthony Olson

Golf is not a poor man’s game and is also not for the faint of heart when it comes to how much equipment and the game itself cost. It would be interesting to learn about the different types of Golf Equipment and to learn about the most expensive golf equipment out there because even if you cannot have them, at least you know about them and you have more knowledge about Golf to boot.

Most Expensive Golf Club

GolfThe Maruman 2007 Majesty Prestigio Iron is considered as the most expensive golf club in the world. This is a Japanese creation that costs $6,400 and is made from a combination of stainless and maraging steel that is made to be strong enough to last the times. The makers of this club also claim to have created the first “metal woods” which are the basis of how strong this is.

Most Expensive Golf Ball

The title for Most Expensive Golf Ball belongs to Nike 20XI which costs around $5 per ball and $50-60 per dozen. It is said that this golf ball is in that particular price range because it allows the player to have better control of the ball and the game and also it promises to travel to a far distance away from the tee. It also has the best core compared to other kinds of golf balls in the world and gives the player more “power” in the game. Rockbottomgolf.com are provide different kinds of golf balls.

Most Expensive Ball Marker

Made from studded diamonds, 18 karat White Gold, Amethyst, Peridot and Citrine and is famous for having a marking application that allows the player to know how many putters away the ball is. The player can also choose to wear this as a necklace by buying a platinum chain. The ball marker costs $10,500.

Most Expensive Golf Shoes

Golf ShoesJohn Hobb, a creation by Hermes is considered as the most expensive pair of golf shoes in the world. These shoes will be custom-made for the player and are made only from the finest kinds of leather available in the market. However, just like lining up for Hermes bags, you have to wait for six months before getting your own pair of shoes.

Most Expensive Golf Bag

Golf bagsThe golf bag is a piece of golf equipment that is very important in the game. The most expensive golf bag in existence is a Louis Vuitton golf bag that costs $9,050. Aside from featuring the famous Damier Geant Monogrammed Canvas, it has a base and handle made from cowhide and a shoulder strap made from cowhide and canvas, as well. It also has six partitions and a travel cover to keep the bag and your equipment safe and in top condition at all times.

Most Expensive Golf Cart

Golf clubsThe Hummer H3 Golf Cart holds the title for being the most expensive golf cart which is known for being the first proportionally correct golf cart with 15 inch custom-built wheels, genuine Chrome grill, an L-Beam chassis, fog lights, headlights and turn signals so that even if you are riding it at night, you will not have a hard time looking for wherever you need to go in the golf course. You may also choose to put leather interiors or even entertainment systems inside the golf cart in order to make it all your own and you may also want to add running boards, as well. You may get this cart for $18,500 and up.

It’s all about what you need

While it may be great to have these things, you have to keep in mind that just because equipment is expensive, it doesn’t mean that it’s the only option that could work for you. You could go for more affordable pieces of golf equipment. What matters is that you know what kind of player you are and you know what you can do, then you will be able to find the equipment that is perfect for you.

The Most Expensive Golf Equipment In The world

Motivational Speaker Leads the Way Brent

Your business is on the verge of collapse. Every month, your financial statements projected dismal profits, rather red signal lines of losses. You still have your resources, capital, buildings, etc. However, you are sure you and your colleagues have done your best. Still, just like how a popular song goes, your best wasn’t good enough, so your employees are getting pressured day by day. Their productivity declines, and you are not getting good at reminding them of their targets. Nothing has happened. Investors are pulling out. The light is fading. What should your recourse be?                                                                   motivational

Try listening to a motivational speaker. He is someone who have the right words, not only to tell stories, to talk and talk just for nothing. A motivational speaker can guide you through rough times, especially when you no longer believe in yourself. Why?

It is mainly because motivational speakers are skilled when it comes to providing inspiring talks that uplift the listeners’ spirits. Their program includes telling simple yet powerful stories, sometimes also their personal ones. They tell those narratives that may come from real life encounters, hardships, efforts and success. They can also be humorous at times. They motivate everyone. As seen and heard from genuine situations, they exalt every listener. Your dull and gloomy atmosphere will be brightened up by hearing them talk. As soon as you are engaged with how they present their speeches, you will be amazed about how much they have motivated you.

They are not only good for personal development. At first, it may be a good strategy to start with developing and enhancing the skills of your employees and leaders. It is good to note that some businesses are weak due to fragile management. When leaders are not effective, they perform poor leadership. This can lead to indecisiveness or lacking the ability to give or choose best options and judgements. Also, they tend not to set the correct course or direction to their subordinates because even they are not confident with their skills, therefore, it is good to put them into leadership and management talks to better guide their fellows.

As you already addressed the top management, you may include the middle line and front liners. They tend to be the stressful group as they are expected to carry out more tasks. Better let them here encouraging words from motivational speakers to let them have a very strong mindset, that can help them focus on their work while not feeling too much burden. By this way, they can think of themselves and act rationally. They may also be able to develop their senses and become more sensitive to their situations. Thus, they will be better in following deadlines, reaching targets and be more disciplined. The time they spent will be a bit more productive.

After addressing your workforce, you can also continue to get second opinions relating to your business operations from them. There are good motivational speakers who are, if not knowledgeable, are also experts in some areas of organizational behavior and production management. They can also formulate strategic management based on their analyses. Just a quick advice for looking for motivational speakers, be careful in studying their background. If you want to know them personally, you can research some of their past activities. You can also browse their work history as this can give you an idea on what to expect from them. It is good to choose a motivational speaker with a diverse experience.

With us, you can find what you are looking for. You can set high expectations without worrying about getting disappointed in the end when you deal with us. As you can see from the profile of Garrison Wynn, you will be delighted. He is a talented speaker who can suit your need for motivation and guide when you think your business is going nowhere. He can deliver speeches on various topics including management, sales, employee engagement and many more. It is up to you to decide by checking samplers and keynote process to better draft a program that you will enjoy.

The start is always the hardest, but if you take the initiative now to listen, you will reap benefits from a motivational speaker as he can steer you towards a better and happier future.

Motivational Speaker Leads the Way

The Use of Human Chorionic Gonadotropinin Fertility Treatments Sarah Henline

blog-4The Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) hormone is generally associated with conception and pregnancy. It is the hormone secreted by the placenta shortly after conception, and it is the same hormone used in pregnancy testing kits to determine pregnancy. Under normal circumstances, HCG is only produced and secreted by the body when a woman becomes pregnant.

HCG is used in fertility treatments in combination with other hormones or the fertility drug clomiphene.It is used alone in the ovulation induction phase involving Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF).

To stimulate the development of eggs in the ovaries, women with low hormone levels or those who are not ovulating are injected with gonadotropins in the early phase of their monthly cycle.Daily shots of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) or human follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH)are administered for around 12 daysstarting on the second day of the menstrual cycle during which time the woman is closely monitored. A transvaginal ultrasound is used to monitor the egg’s growth inside tiny sacs or follicles. Blood samples are also drawn frequently to check estrogen production.

hcg-shots-and-infertilityIf the treatment is successful, mature follicles will develop and this signals the readiness of the ovary to ovulate, for more information visit URL. A single dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is then given to stimulate ovulation which is expected to occur approximately after 36 hours. This allows the doctor to strategically manage intrauterine insemination or schedule retrieval of oocytes for in vitro fertilization.Insemination or egg retrieval is typically set at the time closest to the 36th hour marker to maximize maturation prior to ovulation. Out of 100 women who undergo gonadotropin-HCG therapy, 30-60 cases result in pregnancy. Of this, up to 35% suffer miscarriage.

HCG can be used after treatment with Clomiphene, an oral medication prescribed to induce follicular development, to assist in stimulating ovulation.

In men, low sperm count caused by low testosterone levels is treated by stimulating testosterone production through HCG injections. A regular treatment routine consists of 3 weekly shots until normal blood testosterone level is reached. This could take from 4-6 months and vary from patient to patient. Weekly HCG injection is then adjusted to 2 times weekly and combined with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) until normal sperm count is achieved.

Depending on the brand, HCG is administered either through intramuscular or subcutaneous injection.

As with any medication, side effects can occur with HCG use.
Women undergoing HCG fertility treatments are at risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Around 25% of these women experience mild forms of the syndrome which usually last for a week or longer, if conception occurs. Mild OHSS symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, bloating and a sensation of tenderness. Very few suffer from the severe form. Symptoms range from acute pain in the abdominal area and discoloured urine to serious breathing problems.

A slight weight gain may be expected when a patient starts treatment with hCG and this can be attributed to fluid retention. Edema can also occur and the swelling may give the appearance of weight increase. While a minor gain in weight is common, abrupt and extreme gains are a cause for concern as these could indicate OHSS.

Swelling, tenderness, and a sensation of pain in the breast may be experienced as well. This can be traced to the fact that HCG is a reproduction-related hormone. These side effects are expected to end as soon as the body is able to adjust to the HCG shots.

Lastly, HCG shots can alter hormonal balance in the body which affect moods and mental conditions. It’s not unusual for patients receiving HCG treatment to experience depression, irritability, or restlessness

The Use of Human Chorionic Gonadotropinin Fertility Treatments